酷悠双语网

设为首页 收藏本站 休闲

酷悠双语网

中国举行庆祝抗战胜利大阅兵 宣布裁军30万
Pomp, circumstance and combat vehicles at Beijing parade

2020-9-5 14:35| 发布者: 忘忧草| 查看: 2383| 评论: 0

摘要: China on Thursday unveiled its grandest show of military might in years as 12,000 troops and 500 combat vehicles paraded through the symbolically resonant Tiananmen Square, a demonstration of China’s ...
Pomp, circumstance and combat vehicles at Beijing parade
China on Thursday unveiled its grandest show of military might in years as 12,000 troops and 500 combat vehicles paraded through the symbolically resonant Tiananmen Square, a demonstration of China’s rise as a regional hegemon and a blunt warning to the US.

China’s newest combat jets roared overhead, casting Beijing’s rarely azure sky in plumes of coloured smoke while attack helicopters buzzed in formation.

The parade opened with a 70-gun salute, and a speech by President Xi Jinping from a moving vehicle, who promised “China will never seek hegemony or expansion, it will never inflict its past suffering on any other nation”.

Mr Xi also pledged to push ahead with wide-ranging reforms intended to streamline China’s 2.3m-strong People’s Liberation Army and transform it into a modern, high-technology force, adding that it would be reduced by 300,000 personnel.

While billed as an ode to peace and reconciliation between former enemies on the 70th anniversary of the end of the second world war, the parade was more notable for the weaponry on display.

Intercontinental ballistic missiles, drones, advanced bomber tanks and assault helicopters were on display, the fruits of 20 years of double-digit increases in China’s annual defence budget.

“On the exterior this is a show to celebrate peace but it is really a demonstration to the west of China’s rise” said Qiao Mu, a professor at Beijing Foreign Studies University.

The timing of the parade also points to politically driven efforts to buttress President Xi Jinping’s rule, say analysts. Typically, such large parades are held to mark successive 10-year anniversaries of the 1949 communist revolution. China has not previously marked the end of the second world war with such a parade.

However, many believe Mr Xi, battling a slowing economy and seeking to buttress his authority, wanted to seize the opportunity both to demonstrate his political strength and deliver a morale boost to the People’s Liberation Army, upon which the Communist party is heavily reliant.

“[The parade] is a way for Mr Xi, a fairly new leader with a reputably strong character, to show his authority and command over the nation,” said Mr Qiao. “He is keen to show that he fully holds the reins in a ceremonious occasion. It also serves to show that the military is fully committed to his office and the party.”

There is also a global message, delivered just two weeks before Mr Xi is due to arrive for a state visit to the US, his first as President. To many Chinese experts, Beijing’s show of strength may be a means — in its eyes — of preserving the pluralistic global status quo away from unilateral US hyperpower.

“The parade sends a message that this world order should never be overturned, and that countries should not attempt to achieve their political goals through invasion,” says Gao Zhikai, former English interpreter for the late Deng Xiaoping.

The second world war is itself more historically charged than the 1949 revolution. It is a war that China arguably did not win, and in any case one where the Communist party was largely sidelined.

The historical contortions thus required to hold the parade mean the Communist party has now embraced its former nationalist opponents, the Kuomintang, who did the bulk of the fighting.

Former KMT veterans, many of whom were repressed in the decades after the Communist victory in 1949, joined in the parade.

“The Communist party has had to expand its version of history as a way to bring people together,” said Rana Mitter, an expert on Chinese history at Oxford university, adding that there had been a rise of nationalism under Mr Xi.

“The Communist party has long since abandoned the idea of class struggle, and they are looking for a more nationalist sense of shared identity to take its place,” he said.

China was essentially under martial law for the parade, with cars banned, businesses shuttered and residents along the route prohibited from even peering out their windows.

Many foreign leaders stayed away, or toned down their participation, partly out of concern for Japanese sensitivities — the anniversary was billed in the official media as the “anniversary of victory in the war against Japanese aggression,” even though Beijing insisted the celebration was not directed “against any third country”.

China believes Japan has never adequately apologised for the war, which Japan insists it has. No Japanese leaders or even embassy officials would participate, Japan said. Most European countries either sent cabinet officials or were represented by embassy officials. The US was represented by its ambassador to China — in effect a diplomatic snub.

Many leaders were deterred by the venue: for much of the world, Tiananmen Square remains a symbol of the Chinese regime’s potential for savagery, site of the June 1989 protest that ended in a massacre by Chinese troops.

中国在周四上午举行了多年来最为宏大的武装力量展示,超过1.2万名军人和500多辆战车在阅兵仪式中通过了富于象征意义的天安门广场,展现了中国作为区域强国的崛起,并对美国发出强烈警告。

中国最新式作战飞机轰鸣着飞过天安门广场上空,在北京罕见的晴朗蓝天中划出彩色烟雾带,随后大批武装直升机也编队通过。

阅兵仪式以70响礼炮开始,中国国家主席习近平在天安门城楼上发表讲话,宣誓“中国永远不称霸、永远不搞扩张,永远不会把自身曾经经历过的悲惨遭遇强加给其他民族。”

习近平还承诺推动广泛改革,以精简230万人民解放军,将其改造成一支现代化、高科技的军队,并补充将裁减军队员额30万。

在中国抗日战争和第二次世界大战结束70周年之际,中国本次阅兵被称为一首过去的敌对国家之间和平与和解的颂歌,但阅兵式上展示的各种武器更令人瞩目。

洲际弹道导弹、无人机、先进的轰炸机、坦克和攻击直升机纷纷亮相,展现了过去20年中每年以两位数字增长的中国军费开支的成果。

“表面上看,这是一场庆祝和平的展示,但它实际上是向西方展示中国的崛起,”北京外国语大学(Beijing Foreign Studies University)教授乔木说。

分析人士称,此次阅兵的时机也显示出,这是中国领导人习近平巩固自身统治的政治努力。通常,此类大型阅兵都在每10年一次的中国人民共和国建国“大庆”期间举行,此前中国也没有为庆祝抗战或二战结束而举行过类似的阅兵。

然而,很多人相信,正在应对经济放缓,寻求巩固自身权威的习近平,想要抓住这个机会,一方面展示自己的政治强力,另一方面也提振共产党极为倚重的人民解放军的士气,

“作为一个以性格强硬著称、上台时间相对不长的领导人,(阅兵)是习近平展现自身权威和其对国家的控制的一种方式,”乔木表示,“他渴望在一个仪式性场合表明自己完全掌控了政权。另一个目的是表明军队完全服从于他的政府和党。”

距离习近平将首次以国家主席身份对美国进行国事访问仅两周,这次阅兵向全球传达了讯息。很多中国专家认为,在北京看来,力量展示可能是一种保证多元化的全球现状不被单边主义的超级大国美国颠覆的手段。

“阅兵传达的讯息是,这一世界秩序永远不应被颠覆,国家不应试图通过侵略达成自身的政治目的,”已故领导人邓小平的前英语翻译高志凯说。

二战本身要比1949年的革命成功更具历史意义。很多人认为二战里中国并不是战胜国,而且共产党在二战中也基本是被边缘化的。

因此,举行阅兵就得对历史进行修正,这种修正意味着共产党现在接纳了过去内战中的敌人国民党,抗战中的大部分战斗都是由后者完成的。

前国民党老兵参加了此次阅兵,其中许多人曾在共产党1949年胜利后的数十年中遭到压迫。

“共产党需要对自己版本的历史进行扩充,以凝聚人心,”牛津大学(Oxford University)中国历史专家拉纳?米特(Rana Mitter)表示,他还补充在习近平治下,中国的民族主义上升了。

“共产党早已抛弃阶级斗争的思想,它们正在寻求让一种更趋民族主义的共同身份认同感来取代前者的位置,”米特说。

为了这次阅兵,中国基本进入了戒严状态,汽车禁行、商户关闭、阅兵行进路线沿路的居民甚至被禁止从窗户向外张望。

许多外国领导人没有前来,或者对参与阅兵式一事淡化处理,一定程度上这是出于担心日本的敏感情绪——即使北京方面坚称此次庆典不是“针对任何第三方国家”,这次周年纪念在官方媒体中被称为“中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年”。

中国认为日本始终没有为战争充分道歉,而日本则坚持日本已经充分道歉。日本方面称,没有日本领导人,甚至也没有日本大使馆官员会出席。大多数欧洲国家或者派出内阁官员,或者由大使馆官员代表出席。美国由驻华大使代表出席——这事实上是一种外交上的冷落。

许多领导人因此次阅兵的场所而却步:对世界大多数地区而言,天安门广场依然是一个中国政权潜在暴行的象征。

译者/何黎


路过

雷人

鲜花

鸡蛋
最新评论
关闭

站长推荐上一条 /1 下一条

返回顶部