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中国为逼韩国放弃萨德向韩企施压
China turns screw on corporate South Korea over US missile shield

2017-1-6 07:28| 发布者: 忘忧草| 查看: 168| 评论: 0

摘要: China has threatened some of South Korea’s largest companies over Seoul’s decision to deploy a US ballistic missile shield, according to several people briefed on the conversations.Samsung and Lotte ...
China turns screw on corporate South Korea over US missile shield
China has threatened some of South Korea’s largest companies over Seoul’s decision to deploy a US ballistic missile shield, according to several people briefed on the conversations.

Samsung and Lotte Group were among companies warned by a foreign ministry official during a visit to Seoul last week that their China business could suffer because of the Korean stance.

South Korean officials labelled a visit by Chen Hai, the ministry’s deputy director-general of the department of Asian affairs, as “highly irregular”. They said he ignored requests to postpone the trip until the new year and did not pay a courtesy call to his counterparts at the foreign ministry in Seoul.

Asked about Mr Chen’s visit, China’s foreign ministry responded that he had “widely exchanged opinions on China-Korea relations, bilateral communication and co-operation, with people from all circles in Korea”.

Samsung and Lotte said they were unaware of any meetings with Mr Chen.

South Korean companies have borne the brunt of Seoul’s decision last July to host the US Terminal High Altitude Area Defence system as North Korea steps up its military posturing, conducting two nuclear tests and about 30 ballistic missile launches last year.

Seoul said the Thaad platform would defend it against attacks from the north. But the move has outraged China, which said Thaad undermined its nuclear deterrent and could allow the US to use the platform’s powerful radar to peer deep into its territory. In a newspaper column on Monday, Wang Yi, China’s foreign minister, identified objection to the Thaad deployment as one of the ministry’s key policies for this year.

Korean observers said Mr Chen’s visit appeared to be aimed at scaring the country’s biggest conglomerates into lobbying Seoul against Thaad deployment.

Yoo Il-ho, Korea’s finance minister, told reporters this week there had been “several suspected cases of non-tariff barriers” since last July and that Seoul should determine China’s “real intention”.

Cai Jian of the Center for Korean Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai said China considered Korean companies to be a significant pressure point.

“The Korean economy relies heavily on exports to China,” he said. “Up till now the penalties are still very small scale and most have not been publicised, but they will increasingly strengthen the penalty measures. If they do not change course, Beijing will have them pay the price.”

Lotte Group has faced a series of regulatory probes in China since selling the government a golf course as a base for the Thaad system in November.

Korea’s popular culture and tourism sectors are also feeling the pinch. Actors and pop stars have found themselves unwelcome in China, with promotional events axed and television appearances cancelled. Several Chinese newspapers have called for boycotts of all South Korean entertainers in China.

China also rejected applications by Korean carriers to add charter flights between the two countries for January and February — a peak travel season including the Chinese lunar new year holiday. The Chinese government has told Korean tour agencies of plans to cut tourism from China by 20 per cent and limit shopping days on tours, according to South Korean officials.

In response to such moves, Yun Byung-se, South Korean foreign minister, said the government was considering countermeasures, although he reaffirmed that the planned Thaad deployment was a matter of national security.

A group of seven opposition lawmakers landed in Beijing on Wednesday for a three-day trip to meet Chinese officials including Mr Wang to express their concerns over China’s recent economic measures deemed retaliatory by Seoul.

Conservatives in Seoul criticised their visit as an “irresponsible” move that could be used for Beijing’s aggressive campaign to derail the Thaad deployment. But Moon Jae-in, former head of the opposition party and a frontrunner to become South Korean president, said last month the Thaad deployment should be decided by the next administration, holding out the possibility of renegotiating the agreement with Washington.

据几位了解相关谈话的人士介绍,针对首尔方面决定部署美国反弹道导弹系统,中国向韩国一些大公司发出了威胁。

中国外交部一名官员上周访问首尔期间警告,这些企业的中国业务可能因为韩国政府的立场而受到影响,三星(Samsung)和乐天集团(Lotte Group)是受到警告的其中两家韩国公司。

韩国官员将中国外交部亚洲司副司长陈海的访问称为“高度不规范”。他们表示,他忽视了推迟到新年访韩的请求,而且在首尔没有向韩国外交部同级别官员作礼节性拜访。

在被问及陈海的访韩之行时,中国外交部回应称,他同韩国各界人士就中韩关系、双边交流与合作广泛地交换了意见。

三星和乐天表示,它们不知道与陈海进行了任何会晤。

自首尔方面去年7月决定部署美国的末段高空区域防御系统(THAAD,中文简称:萨德)以来,韩国企业承受了很大压力。韩国决定部署萨德的背景是朝鲜加强炫耀武力,去年进行了两次核试验和大约30次弹道导弹发射。

首尔方面表示,萨德平台将帮助它抵御朝鲜的攻击。但此举激怒了中国,中国称萨德破坏了中国的核威慑,并且可能让美国得以利用该平台的强大雷达侦察中国境内纵深地带的情况。中国外交部长王毅周一在一篇报纸专栏文章中指出,反对萨德部署是中国外交部今年的关键政策之一。

韩国观察人士表示,陈海访韩似乎旨在吓唬该国各大企业集团,以促使它们对首尔方面展开反对部署萨德的游说。

韩国企划财政部部长柳一镐(Yoo Il-ho)本周告诉记者,自去年7月以来,出现了“几起疑似非关税壁垒的个案”,韩方应该确定中方的“真正意图”。

复旦大学(Fudan University)朝韩研究中心的蔡建表示,中国认为韩国企业是一个重要的压力点。

“韩国经济严重依赖对华出口,”他说。“迄今为止,惩罚规模仍然很小,而且多数没有公布,但他们将日益加强惩罚措施。如果韩方不改变路线,北京方面会让他们付出代价。”

自乐天在11月将一个高尔夫球场出售给韩国政府、用作部署萨德系统的基地以来,这家韩资集团在中国遭遇了一系列监管调查。

韩国的流行文化和旅游业也感受到了压力。演员和流行歌手发现自己在中国不受欢迎,宣传活动被叫停,电视出镜安排被取消。几家中国报纸呼吁在中国抵制所有韩国艺人。

中国还拒绝了不止一家韩国航空公司在1月和2月增开韩中包机航班的申请;包含农历新年假期的这两个月是旅行旺季。据韩国官员介绍,中国政府已告诉韩国旅行社,计划将赴韩旅游的中国游客人数削减20%,并限制在韩旅游期间的购物天数。

针对这些动作,韩国外长尹炳世(Yun Byung-se)表示,政府正在考虑对策,尽管他重申计划中的萨德部署是一个国家安全问题。

由7名反对党议员组成的代表团周三抵达北京,展开三天访华之行,他们将会晤包括王毅在内的中国官员,表达他们对近期中国采取的经济措施的关切,首尔方面认为这些措施是报复性的。

首尔的保守派人士批评反对党议员访华,称此举是“不负责任”的行动,可能被北京方面利用,以便展开旨在破坏萨德部署的咄咄逼人的行动。但是,反对党前领导人、有望成为韩国总统的文在寅(Moon Jae-in)上月表示,萨德部署应该由下届政府决定,从而保留与华盛顿重新谈判协议的可能性。

译者/何黎


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