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2012-5-17 06:14| 发布者: 小鱼儿| 查看: 2038| 评论: 0

摘要: His hands numb after queueing in the bitter cold outside, my father squeezes into a phone booth and dials my number. Thousands of miles away in the US, I hear his dear voice, still husky from the fros ...
His hands numb after queueing in the bitter cold outside, my father squeezes into a phone booth and dials my number. Thousands of miles away in the US, I hear his dear voice, still husky from the frosty Karelian air. His tone has its usual calm; his mood is upbeat.

We were speaking just days before Vladimir Putin’s presidential inauguration, yet we weren’t talking about what his third term would mean for Russia and its citizens. That much we already know based on the 12 years of his rule. Rather, we talked about what needs to be done in the years ahead, because the future of our country is no longer up to Mr Putin; it now depends on its people. The man in charge may not have changed, but we Russians have.

For me the struggle to make Russia a freer and more just society is personal. My father, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, former head of Yukos, once Russia’s largest company, has been locked up for more than eight and a half years on false charges of embezzlement and tax evasion. His only crime was standing up to Mr Putin. He angered the Kremlin by financing opposition parties and denouncing the scale of corruption. I have not seen him since 2003, when I went to college in the US; he has never met my daughter Diana, who is now 2 years old.

I know that he is inspired both by the protest movement that marked last year’s rigged elections, and because tens of thousands of people across the country are expressing themselves in a peaceful and democratic way. We both wish we could have been there on the streets of Moscow with our fellow citizens. Yet our absence is emblematic of the troubles my country faces. Because of the lack of rule of law my father is in jail, with thousands of other persecuted successful businessmen. I remain abroad in self-imposed exile, unwilling to return to my own country, like thousands of other young Russians educated abroad. Many more are leaving Russia daily.

The brief pause in the “pack-my-bags-and-get-out” sentiment that was so common among people my age a couple of months ago was powered by the feeling that reforms could come overnight. Many subsequently became disenchanted when Mr Putin did not suffer defeat. Yet the protests will continue, reinforcing the idea that his ascension is illegitimate, and their momentum will be sustained by focusing on small goals rather than on the Kremlin itself.

This means challenging the self-serving interests of the siloviki, the “strong men” whose projects include building a highway as wide as six football pitches through the protected Khimki forest outside Moscow. It means registering opposition parties, which as of this month are able to form legally. It means publicising news of bribes or beatings on LiveJournal and Facebook, and signing petitions calling on the Kremlin to create a public, independent television station as promised.

The west should neither neglect nor underestimate its potential role in advancing freedom and democracy in my homeland. That includes supporting laws punishing human rights violators – such as the US Magnitsky Act – being debated in legislatures from Washington to London and Brussels. Such bills would restrict visas and banking access for human rights abusers, who so often want to park their money in the US or Europe.

This initiative goes further than just the case of Sergei Magnitsky, the whistleblower who uncovered a $230m bureaucratic fraud and for his troubles was sent to prison, where he died after being beaten and denied care. It also aims to secure justice against those who violated the rights of Yukos employees such as Vasily Alexanyan, who died last year. He had earlier been refused medical treatment when in prison unless he gave false testimony against my father.

In the next few months, as his own people display their frustration with him, Mr Putin will try to consolidate power. But try as he might, he cannot hold on forever.

A future democratic Russia will one day be established “on the premise that freedom is indeed better than unfreedom”, my father recently wrote, “and that a society of free people deals and will deal best with the challenges that humanity faces”.

The country has changed. It is no longer “stability and continuity at all costs” that the Russian people crave. Our country yearns for reform. According to some Russian human rights experts, as many as one in six Russian businessmen has been on trial, and prisons hold thousands of them – many of whom are victims of abuse of the criminal justice system through fabricated cases. The Levada Center think-tank estimates that in a given year more than 15 per cent of Russians bribe bureaucrats and other agents of this “new nobility”. The country is ruled by one party – United Russia – which anyone who wants to be sure of their business’s future has to join.

Mr Putin’s inauguration will shine a light once again on Moscow. But as we’ve seen in the past five months, Russians are learning how to rattle their chains. In two, maybe three years, we think these chains will be broken.

Russia 2012 is a different place to Russia 2004, the last time Mr Putin was elected president. Many people are asking this question: can he change for the good of the country?

It takes a remarkable leader to understand when to put aside riches, power and grudges and walk in step with the times. Mr Putin is not that man. Cosmetic legislation passed by the Duma, promises of vast social benefits and a refocus on natural resource exports mean one thing: Putin 2012 will be more of the same man we already know. The country has changed but the man who is due to retake the highest office cannot.

When my father and I are finally able to speak in person, it may be in a strikingly different Russia. For us that day cannot come soon enough.

The writer is the eldest son of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, an Amnesty International prisoner of conscience and former Yukos chief


致普京的信 2012-05-11
俄罗斯任命梅德韦杰夫为总理 2012-05-09
普京再度出任总统前夕莫斯科爆发抗议 2012-05-07

我们那次交谈,发生在弗拉基米尔?普京(Vladimir Putin)的总统就职典礼之前几天,但我们并没有谈论普京的第三个总统任期对俄罗斯及俄罗斯公民意味着什么。从他过去掌权的那12年的表现来看,我们在很大程度上已对此心中有数。我们谈论了未来几年需要做些什么,因为我们祖国的未来已不再取决于普京,而是取决于她的人民。掌权的人或许没有什么改变,但俄罗斯人民已经改变了。

提高俄罗斯社会自由度和公正度的斗争,与我有着切身关系。我父亲米哈伊尔?霍多尔科夫斯基(Mikhail Khodorkovsky)曾是尤科斯公司(Yukos)总裁,尤科斯曾是俄罗斯最大的企业。可是,他却因当局捏造的贪污和逃税罪名遭到关押,至今已超过八年半。他的唯一罪行是挺身而出反对普京。他资助反对党、抨击大规模的腐败,因而触怒了克里姆林宫。我从2003年赴美求学以来就再也没有见过他,他也从未见过我现已两岁的女儿戴安娜(Diana)。




西方既不应忽视也不应低估其在促进俄罗斯自由民主方面能够发挥的作用,包括对惩罚侵犯人权者的法案予以支持,如美国的《马格尼茨基法案》(Magnitsky Act)。这些法案正在华盛顿、伦敦和布鲁塞尔的立法机关中得到讨论,它们将限制侵犯人权者获得签证和银行服务,而这些侵犯人权者往往想把资金存放在美国和欧洲。

此举不仅仅针对谢尔盖?马格尼茨基(Sergei Magnitsky)案件——马格尼茨基揭露了一起涉案金额达2.3亿美元的官僚诈骗案,却因自己惹出的麻烦而身陷囹圄,在狱中遭到毒打且不得医治,最后死在狱中。此举还旨在确保侵犯瓦西里?亚历山雅恩(Vasily Alexanyan)等尤科斯员工权利的人被绳之以法。亚历山雅恩去年去世,去世之前处在监禁中,当局一直拒绝他就医,除非他提供不利于我父亲的虚假证词。



俄罗斯已经改变。俄罗斯人民渴望的不再是“不惜任何代价追求稳定和持续”。俄罗斯渴望的是改革。一些俄罗斯人权专家指出,多达六分之一的俄罗斯商人曾遭审判,数千名商人被判入狱——其中许多人都是当局以捏造案件形式滥用刑事司法体系的受害者。根据智库勒瓦达中心(Levada Center)的估计,某一年有超过15%的俄罗斯人向政府官僚或这一“新贵”阶层的其他代理人行贿。俄罗斯由统一俄罗斯党(United Russia)一党统治,任何一个想确保未来经营顺利的商人都不得不加入该党。





本文作者是米哈伊尔?霍多尔科夫斯基(Mikhail Khodorkovsky)的长子,米哈伊尔?霍多尔科夫斯基是尤科斯公司前总裁,也是大赦国际(Amnesty International)认定的良心犯



致普京的信 2012-05-11
俄罗斯任命梅德韦杰夫为总理 2012-05-09
普京再度出任总统前夕莫斯科爆发抗议 2012-05-07






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